Put those sts on yarn or something flexible so they sort of 'fold up' and you can bring the next set of sts right next to the first set to work them. Or you can CO 2 sts to bridge that gap a little, then dec them on the next round.
For the thumb - Put the 10 held sts onto dpns. Knit them and pick up sts in that gap where you put the sts on a holder. You can do something like a m1 in the sts next to the gap, or if you CO 2 sts, pick 2 up from them and one before and after them. So you have 14 sts and on the next round you're going to dec the 4 extra down to 12. Then knit until the thumb is the length you want.
sue- knitting heretic