Hi and welcome to Knitting Help.
Are you doing top-down or toe-up? What type of heel are you doing? Short row? Fleegle? Sweet Tomato? Flap? Something else? I use 1/2 the total stitches for the heel on short rows, I think Sweet Tomato heels call for about 2/3. Others, I just have no idea. I don't know what the difference in the stitch patterns you ask about are unless I work them myself.
Maybe if we knew what pattern you're using, can you link to it or does it have a name?
You can't knit the left sock first. Ever.