Lieke, I would recommend you not work as you are with wool if you have that kind of allergy. If there is some reason you must then perhaps wear latex gloves or similar gloves that do not have latex but that are like a second skin. The vinegar would have altered the Ph of the water and I'm guessing you had your hands in that even for a few moments - this *may* have helped reduce the inflammation and itching and of course the whole process may have rid the wool of some filaments and microscopic bits that would stick to your hands. But, you are really better off not using wool as such. This aside to test whether the vinegar is helpful, buy apple cider vinegar and soak your hands in a bowl of this (half vinegar/half water) for 5 min and dry before you handle the wool and see if they helps delay the reaction a little wool. You might also need to consider - if you're buying the undyed wool whether it is mercerized etc or has gone through any chemical process.
If the wool is extremely 'natural' you may be allergic to the lanolin on the wool.
There are various steps you can take to test whether you are actually allergic to 'wool' (or the lanolin on the wool) or the chemicals used in processes. The easiest way to test for lanolin of course is to get a small tube and dab it on your inner wrist and wait. If its not that then try and get a small amount of natural (no process) fleece, rinse it in clear water, let it dry and then rub that on your inner wrist. If both THOSE turn out ok it could be the chemicals or processes used in the mill. That's more something a doctor or dermatologist could apply tests for. At least if you knew which chemical is the problem you could try and locate mills that don't use it.