I'm working on teaching my Girl Scout troop to knit and crochet; they're mostly 9 and 10 year olds.
One of the first things we did was make finger-crocheted necklaces. I got some colorful Red Heart yarn and big pony beads. Two of the girls I have already knew how to crochet, so they liked learning to put the beads in the stitches; other girls made a chain and strung the beads over that.
Another thing we did was learn how to cast on and do garter stitch. Some of the girls cast on just a few, and others did more. Depending on how wide the pieces were were and how much the girls wanted to do, some turned into headbands, bracelets, some became coin purses and bags. I think the girls got a big kick out of seeing how even though they were all making rectangles, they ended up with very different projects.