Hmmm - what I know of are:
Western - in which I include:
English (yarn held in right hand)
Irish Cottage imo is like a further adatptation of English so I put it here
Continental (yarn held in left hand)
Norwegian purl is generally done w/yarn in left hand, so I put it here
Eastern - where you enter through the back of the stitch and wrap the yarn in the opposite direction of Western for EVERY stitch (clockwise)
Combination - a melding of Western and Eastern, where you knit through the back, but wrap in the "Western" (counter-clockwise direction) for knits, and then purl through the front, but wrap clockwise.
Portuguese - Yarn is held either behind neck or near left shoulder, stitches are formed by using thumbs, knit stitch procedure resembles Norwegian purling, and purling resembles continental knitting.
AND - there is also left-handed knitting, which I would imagine can include style elements of all of the above.
and I'm sure a bunch others I have yet to read/hear about!!