Yes, there are 2 MAIN styles (the emulate cuff down,)
and there are several alternate "one of kind" gussets
-(see Sensational Knitted Socks, C. Schurch for details.. this is the style of toe up gusseted heel she uses)
1--knit to beinning of heel shaping
--knit flap (work half stitches) in stocking knit with slip stitch selvage.
--turn heel (round turning works best)
--pick up stitches (gusset) and decrease
. work these stitches (back of heel) in heel stitch pattern
-work only center (the stitches that will remain after gusset decreases have been completed in heel stitch pattern
Option 2--REVERSED gusset heel
Work to heel
Continue working in round, INCREASING at either side of "heel" , creating a gusset.(
(select a side of sock to be bottom/sole/heel, increase on both sides of these stitches)
when gusset is large enough, stop working in round
in center of bottom/sole/back stitches, turn heel (leave other stitches on needles
--back of heel--work in heel stitch, and on each row,(knitting flat not in round) knit (or p) 2tog, (decreasing gusset)
when decreases are completed, return to knitting in round.
(the pink socks
have a reverse gusset, it looks very similar to a cuff down gusset)
(direction for this style can be found on internet--google)
gussets are 2 trianglular bits of knitting to add ease.
NORMALLY they are at lower side, but you can move them (and place them on the instep) Cat Bordhi's book "new directions for sock" does exactly this..
and i have experimented too
see this post
, for one set of experimental gussets
and this post
and these socks
have a 'hidden (in pattern" gusset, with a short row heel.
and the Tsock Tsarina's new club sock (Frenchman's Creek) also feature a hidden gusset (it look like there isn't one, but its there, (check out it out on ravelry.)
Are there other options? YES. they are yours to discover, create..
(there is a Gansey heel, and a strong heel --both worked normally top down, the have shaping but not standard gussets.. could this shaping be reversed? Yes.. how? you have to figure out!)