If you can knit, purl, increase and decrease - you can do anything in knitting.
Honest! Everything else is just worked off of the knit and the purl. And the teacher introduced you to cables on your second lesson??? Geez, you must be in information overload!
And you certainly can handle most projects!
There are plenty of great folks here that can help you through whatever you need.
Don't be afraid! I'd suggest starting with basics then get fancy. Cabled sweaters are not exactly my first choice for beginners - just a stockingette cardigan would be my strong choice. (Of course, make it in your very most favorite color, and use the softest, nicest yarn you can find.)
Hope this helps,
PS - Good for you for learning to knit! It's one of the most relaxing crafts around, imho.