That's odd, it seems like it should tell you how many to cast on to make the head thing. For the scarf it says to cast on 33 which is not a multiple of 14 + 1?
If you want a multiple of 14+1 I think I would go with 29 and see how that goes. 14+14=28+1=29.
What they mean about
Note: Due to the nature of this pat st, the number of sts will vary from row to row.)
Is that the number of stitches you start with will change over the course of the pattern. Some patterns tell you which rows you can count on to have the number you started with, and some tell you how many you have at the end of each row. I didn't notice if this one gave you any help that way.