In loom knitting you would knit a length and then put the cast on back on the corresponding peg and knit those and continue.
In knitting with needles....you would provisionally cast on (in my opinion), knit a length, and then k2tog the stitch on the needle with the corresponding co stitch.
To do this...you would rip out the pco, placing stitches on a needle and put the two needles together and knit one stitch from front needle and one stitch from back needle together. Its a 3 needle bind off, with out the bind off part...LOL
You can do the same thing with a regular cast on...but its way more obvious where your "join" is, and not as flexable.
Im not sure as to a name for this proceedure....but thats it explained.
I hope i understood and answered your question correctly.